“Cagey” trees have safer lives

Tristan Charles-Dominique, Jean-Francois Barczi, Elizabeth Le Roux and Simon Chamaillé-Jammes Where large browsers such as impalas or kudus are abundant, trees survive only if they have chemical or structural defences. Structural defences include the arrangement of dense and intricate architecture, termed ‘cage’ architecture. Previous studies showed that trees developing in herbivore-rich environments tend to have…