Offspring development and life-history variation in a water flea depends upon clone-specific integration of genetic, non-genetic and environmental cues

Ewan Harney, Steve Paterson and Stewart J. Plaistow The way that organisms develop their phenotype (their characteristic features or traits) is influenced by the genes that they possess and the environment that they experience, but also by the environments that their parents experienced. This is because the environment parents experience can be passed to their…