Varying plant defence chemicals at smaller scales increases parasitoid pressure on caterpillars

Ryan L. Paul, Ian S. Pearse, Paul J. Ode Insect herbivores, like caterpillars, experience a lot of variation in their plant diets, yet we know little about how diet variation affects their populations. Parasitoids, insects which live on or inside another insect host and ultimately kill it, are important in regulating populations of insect herbivores. Herbivores can be affected by variation in the plants they … Continue reading Varying plant defence chemicals at smaller scales increases parasitoid pressure on caterpillars

Hybrid interaction network in an olive grove. Spheres with different colours represent species that belong to different groups (e.g., blue for predators, yellow for plants). Lines linking spheres show interactions and the colour of these lines indicate the type of the interaction (e.g., red for pollination and blu for predation).

Agricultural intensification can affect different groups and interaction types in opposite ways

Martínez Núñez, Carlos; Rey, Pedro Understanding how agricultural intensification affects different groups of species and different types of interactions (e.g., pollination and predation) is an interesting challenge, which can also help us to improve management in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we use bee hotels (artificially provided cavities such as reed stems where some bees and wasps nest) to study how pollination and predation vary … Continue reading Agricultural intensification can affect different groups and interaction types in opposite ways

View of our study site, a meadow at the University of Wyoming - National Park Service (UW-NPS) research station, near Jackson Lake in Grand Teton National Park (USA). As is common in the region, arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata; Asterales: Asteraceae) and other forbs are interspersed with sagebrush in open meadows surrounded by mixed conifer forests. Photo: Sylvain Pincebourde.

Tell me how small you are and I will tell you how hot you are

Pincebourde, Sylvain; Dillon, Michael; Woods, Art When it comes to climate, size matters. Large animals, including humans, feel hot or cold based primarily on air temperature and the strength of incoming sunlight. For these large animals, the temperature of nearby objects is largely irrelevant. Most animals, however, are tiny, and the surfaces they live on, including the soil and rocks, stems and leaves, and even … Continue reading Tell me how small you are and I will tell you how hot you are

Two female fruit flies compete over access to a cap containing high-value food

Younger, less sexually active males make females fight each other more

Bath, Eleanor; Buzzoni, Daisy; Ralph, Toby; Wigby, Stuart; Sepil, Irem Mating changes female behaviour and physiology across a wide range of animals, with these changes induced by components of the male ejaculate, such as sperm and seminal fluid proteins. However, males can vary significantly in their ejaculates, due to factors such as age, mating history, or feeding status. This male variation may therefore lead to … Continue reading Younger, less sexually active males make females fight each other more