Fish contests and community structure

Kai C. Paijmans and Marian Y.L. Wong Contests are a method by which animals resolve conflict over access to resources such as food, shelter and mates. Contest theory is a complex set of models which explain the mechanisms, dynamics and outcomes of animal contests. Because competition for limiting resources is an established mechanism by which…

Mowing exacerbates the loss of ecosystem stability under nitrogen enrichment in a temperate grassland

Yunhai Zhang, Michel Loreau, Nianpeng He, Guangming Zhang, Xingguo Han Zhang The increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen (N) caused by fertilizers and atmospheric deposition has resulted in biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems. Mowing (or biomass removal) is a crucial management strategy for restoring plant diversity in the face of increased N deposition/fertilization. Both N…

Trait-matching and mass determine the functional response of herbivore communities to land use intensification

Gaëtane Le Provost, Nicolas Gross, Luca Börger, Hélène Deraison, Marilyn Roncoroni, Isabelle Badenhausser Understanding how different organisms interact is essential to understand what drives the structure of ecological communities and how they may be affected by environmental change. One important type of interaction is a “trophic interaction” – who eats whom – and for many…

Impacts of future UK rainfall patterns can move through the food chain.

Ruth N. Wade, Alison J. Karley, Scott N. Johnson and Sue E. Hartley Climate change is predicted to cause more variable rainfall in the UK, including increased incidence of extreme drought and heavy rainfall events, and overall reductions in summer precipitation of up to 40% by 2080. These altered rainfall patterns will mean periods of…

Nursing behaviour of neonate humpback whales

Simone K. A. Videsen, Lars Bejder, Mark Johnson and Peter T. Madsen Humpback whales belong to the group of large baleen whales that embark on long distance migrations each year between foraging and breeding grounds. These long migrations result in a short time window on breeding grounds, where pregnant females must give birth and nurse…

REVIEW: Sampling roots to capture plant and soil functions

Grégoire T. Freschet, Catherine Roumet The long and complex evolution of plant roots, and their occurrence in multiple environmental conditions, have shaped a large diversity of forms and functions among plant species. With the growing recognition that roots constitute a critical component of ecosystem functioning, an increasingly large research community has begun to unravel the…

Benefits of thermal tolerance plasticity

Alex R. Gunderson, Michael E. Dillon and Jonathon H. Stillman It has long been known that animals can physiologically adjust to changing temperatures (without evolutionary change), a process known as “thermal acclimation.” It is generally assumed that thermal acclimation is beneficial, but it has proven difficult to empirically demonstrate the benefits, if they exist, under…

Plant defense negates pathogen manipulation of vector behavior

Baiming Liu, Evan L. Preisser, Xiaobin Shi, Huaitong Wu, Chuanyou Li, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Youjun Zhang Many important and economically-damaging plant pathogens are transmitted by insect vectors, and pathogens have been shown to alter vector behavior in ways that promote both their uptake and transmission. In the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus…